Benesse Holdings Co., Ltd. Survey on changes in infants and parents “The 6th Infant Life Questionnaire” From ” I’m patient for my children” to “Emphasis on my own way of life” ~ Growing sense of burden and anxiety about childcare, society “Team chil

Benesse Holdings, Inc.
“6th Infant Life Questionnaire,” a survey that captures changes in infants’ parents and children, from “patient for children” to “emphasis on one’s own way of life” – Growing sense of burden and anxiety about childcare, and support for childrearing by society as a whole “Team Childcare”

In March 2022, the Benesse Educational Research & Development Institute, an in-house think tank of Benesse Corporation
(Headquarters: Okayama City, Okayama Prefecture; President: Hitoshi Kobayashi), will start working for children aged 06 months to 6 years living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Targeting 4,030 guardians with infants (pre-school age), we conducted the “6th Infant Life
Questionnaire”.
This survey, which was conducted in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, was the sixth survey. Through a 27-year comparison, we will clarify how the actual situation and awareness of child-rearing have changed. We would like to report the analysis results so that many people involved in child-rearing and childcare can use it as information to think about better support for children and their families.
[Changes in the basic attributes of the target population] Increase in double-income households, nursery school children, and mothers who graduated from four-year colleges
Average age of mother: 33.8 years old in 2000 survey → 36.5 years old in 2015 survey → 36.1 years old in 2010 survey
Employment rate of mothers: 21.4% in 1995 survey → 40.2% in 2015 survey → 44.6% in 2010 survey
Nursery school enrollment rate: 1995 survey 10.4% → 2015 survey 28.8% → 2010 survey 40.6% (of which 6.4% are certified childcare centers) Mothers who graduated from a four-year university: 2000 survey 15.1% → 2015 survey 33.5% → 2010 survey 43.9%
The main findings of the survey are as follows.
* More than 90% of the survey respondents are mothers, and from the perspective of age comparison,
The target of this analysis was “mothers with children aged 1 year 6 months to 6 years old (pre-school)”.
1. Compared to 2015, mothers’ burden of childcare and anxiety increased. In addition, the number of people who are “tolerant for their children” has decreased, and the awareness of “raising children is important, but I also want to value my own way of life” has increased.
1. Positive feelings toward child-rearing have decreased, and negative feelings have increased. In particular, working mothers are becoming more burdened and anxious about raising children, and the difference between employment types is narrowing (2000-2022 survey).
2. Regarding mothers’ views on child-rearing, the percentage of mothers who answered, “For the sake of my child, I have no choice but to put up with it myself,” has decreased, while the percentage of mothers who answered, “Child-raising is important, but I also want to value my own way of life” has increased ( 2005-2022 survey). 2. Compared to 2015, support from “mother’s friends/acquaintances” and “grandparents” decreased.
1. Regarding the sources of information on discipline and education, “mother’s friends/acquaintances” and “grandparents” have decreased significantly (2015-2022 survey).
2. When the mother leaves the house, it is the “father” who takes care of the child,
Support from people other than fathers is decreasing (2005-2022 survey). 3. Mothers with young preschool children are more anxious about raising children and have limited people to rely on.
1. Mothers with young pre-school children have strong concerns about raising their children (2010 survey).
2. A high proportion of mothers with young preschool children answered that they were “not applicable” to “sources of discipline and education” obtained from others, indicating that the number of people they can rely on is limited (2010). Research).
[Details of survey results]
1. Compared to 2015, mothers’ burden of childcare and anxiety increased. In addition, there was a decrease in the number of people who said, “I can’t stand it for my children,” and there was an increase in awareness that “raising children is important, but I also want to cherish my own way of life.”
1. Fewer positive feelings about parenting and more negative feelings. In particular, working mothers are becoming more burdened and anxious about raising children, and the difference between working styles is narrowing.
From 2015 to 2022, positive emotions are decreasing and negative emotions are increasing. Although the ratio of positive emotions was high for all items, all items decreased by more than 5 points from the previous survey (Figure 1-1). On the other hand, mothers’ negative feelings toward child-rearing are increasing. In particular, “I don’t know what to do about my child” increased by 13 points, and “I think I’m trying to be patient to raise my child” increased by about 20 points, a significant increase compared to the previous survey. (Figure 1-2). In particular, working mothers’ sense of burden of childcare (“I have to endure raising my child”, “I am bothered and irritated”) and childcare anxiety (“I don’t know what to do about my child”). There was a marked increase in , and the gap with full-time housewives, which had been high in the past, narrowed, and there was no difference of more than 5 points (Fig. 1-3).
Figure 1-1 Positive feelings towards child-rearing (year-to-year comparison) [Image 1

Figure 1-2 Negative feelings towards child-rearing (year-to-year comparison) [Image 2

Figure 1-3 Negative feelings toward child-rearing (comparison between 2015 and 2022 by working mother)
[Image 3

* Percentage of “Often + Occasionally”.
* This item has been asked since 2000, but only 2015 and 2022 are shown. * The number of samples in 2015 was 639 full-time workers, 556 part-time workers, and 1,701 full-time housewives.
* The number of samples in 2010 was 731 full-time workers, 638 part-time workers, and 1,615 full-time housewives.
*“Freelance”, “on maternity leave, childcare leave, or on leave” and “others” are not shown due to the small number of samples.
2. Regarding mothers’ views on child-rearing, the percentage of mothers who answered, “For the sake of my child, I have no choice but to put up with it myself,” decreased, while the percentage of mothers who answered, “Child-raising is important, but I also want to value my own way of life,” has increased.
Looking at the child-rearing perspective, the percentage of
respondents who answered that “it is better for the mother to always be with the child until the child is around 3 years old” has gradually decreased, and by 2022, it has fallen below half to 44.9%. On the other hand, 55.1% of the respondents answered that “even if the mother is not always with them, it’s fine if they raise their children with love”, indicating that mothers’ sense of role in child-rearing is beginning to change (Figure 1-4).
Since 2005, there has been an increase in the number of people who say, “For the sake of my children, I have no choice but to endure it myself.” 1-5). In particular, full-time housewives are becoming more aware that they “want to value their own way of life” (44.5%→60.2%), and the difference in mothers’ employment patterns has narrowed (Figure 1-6).
Figure 1-4 Three-year-old myth (year-to-year comparison)
[Image 4

Figure 1-5 Parenting and own way of life (year-to-year comparison) [Image 5

* Items that have been asked since 2005.
Figure 1-6 Balance between parenting and one’s own way of life (comparison between 2015 and 2022 by mother’s employment)
[Image 6

* This item has been asked since 2005, but only 2015 and 2022 are shown. * The number of samples in 2015 was 639 full-time workers, 556 part-time workers, and 1,701 full-time housewives.
* The number of samples in 2010 was 731 full-time workers, 638 part-time workers, and 1,615 full-time housewives.
*“Freelance”, “on maternity leave, childcare leave, or on leave” and “others” are not shown due to the small number of samples.
2. Compared to 2015, support from “mother’s friends/acquaintances” and “grandparents” decreased.
1. The sources of information on discipline and education have significantly decreased in “mother’s friends/acquaintances” and “grandparents.”
Compared to 2015, the ratio of people who answered “From whom do you get information about discipline and education?” has decreased. Items that decreased significantly were “friends/acquaintances of mother (72.0%→36.0%),” “(maternal) grandparents (43.1%→26.6%),” and “siblings and relatives of mother (23.8%→13.0%).” Therefore, it is thought that the opportunity to meet face-to-face has decreased due to the corona sickness, making it difficult to collect information on child-rearing. In addition, the number of “parenting circle friends” and
“kindergarten teachers” has also decreased, indicating that
opportunities for information exchange and consultation are decreasing (Figure 2-1).
Figure 2-1 Sources of information on discipline and education (persons) (year-to-year comparison)
[Image 7

* Items that have been asked since 2015.
* Multiple answers.
* 10 out of 15 items including “Others” are illustrated.
2. When the mother leaves home, it is the “father” who takes care of the child. support is declining.
The percentage of mothers who answered that they have someone or an organization to take care of their children when they are away from home decreased by about 15 points compared to seven years ago (78.0% → 62.3%) (Fig. 2-2). In particular, the number of “grandparents, mother’s siblings and relatives” is decreasing. In addition, the use of “temporary custody at nursery schools and custody daycare at kindergartens” is decreasing. While the number of people and institutions that take care of children has decreased overall, the percentage of respondents who answered “father” has increased (65.7% → 82.0%) (Figure 2-3). It can be seen that there is no choice but to raise children centering on the nuclear family.
Figure 2-2 Whether or not there is a person/organization to take care of children when leaving home (year-to-year comparison)
[Image 8

* Items that have been asked since 2005.
Figure 2-3 Persons/organizations who take care of children when leaving home (year-to-year comparison)
[Image 9

* Items that have been asked since 2005.
* Only those who answered that they have (or have) someone or an organization to take care of their children were asked.
* Multiple answers.
* “Friends of fathers and mothers (dad friends, mom friends)” are items from the 2010 survey.
* “Other” is not shown.
3. Mothers with young preschool children are more anxious about raising children and have limited people to rely on.
1. Mothers with young preschool children have strong concerns about raising their children.
The ratio of mothers with preschool children aged 1 year 6 months to 3 years 11 months who answered “frequently” to “I don’t know what to do about my child” was higher than mothers of nursery school children. 4.6 points higher (Figure 3-1). Similarly, the percentage of mothers of pre-kindergarten children who answered “frequently” was 7.7 points higher than mothers of preschool children who were worried about whether their children would grow up well in the future. (Figure 3-2). It turns out that mothers with preschoolers have more difficulties. Figure 3-1 Anxiety about child-rearing (22-year-olds by young children and kindergarten attendance)
[Image 10

Figure 3-2 Anxiety about the future (22 years for young children and kindergarten attendance)
[Image 11

*Only the answers “Often” and “Sometimes” are shown.
* Young children are children between the ages of 1 year and 6 months to 3 years and 11 months.
* The number of samples is 565 pre-kindergarten children and 807 nursery school children.
2. A high proportion of mothers with young children who are not yet in kindergarten answered that they were “not applicable” to the “source of information on discipline and education” obtained from others, indicating that the number of people they can rely on is limited. Looking at who gets information about discipline and education by the child’s kindergarten enrollment status, the highest percentage of mothers with young nursery school children answered “Kindergarten teacher” at 54.2%. On the other hand, among mothers with preschool children, the highest response rate was “not applicable,” showing a difference of 10.7 points from the response rate of mothers of nursery school children (Table 3-1).
Table 3-1 Sources of information on discipline and education (persons) (young children, 22 years old)
[Image 12

* Multiple answers.
* Young children are children between the ages of 1 year and 6 months to 3 years and 11 months.
* The number of samples is 565 pre-kindergarten children and 807 nursery school children.
* The shaded area is the maximum value for items with a difference of 5 points or more between pre-kindergarten children and nursery school children aged 1 year 6 months to 3 years 11 months.
[Discussion]
Since 2015, there have been major changes in the environment surrounding families raising children. For example, the promulgation and enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Women’s Participation and Advancement in the Workplace (September 2015), the problem of children on waiting lists (2016), the introduction of free childcare and early childhood education (October 2019), the spread of the new coronavirus (2020) year), etc.
What we have seen along with these social movements is a change in mothers’ attitudes toward child-rearing. Since the last survey, there has been a growing awareness that “raising children is important, but I also want to value my own way of life.” In particular, among full-time housewives, there is an increasing tendency to place importance on one’s own way of life, and there is no longer a difference depending on the type of employment. In the background of the change in child-rearing views, compared to the past, the rate of women going on to college and the employment rate are increasing, and it is speculated that they are seeking their own way of living and working as their options expand. increase.
The increase in mothers’ childcare burden and anxiety is due to the decrease in opportunities to meet with “friends / acquaintances” and “grandparents” due to the epidemic of the new coronavirus, making it difficult to obtain information on childcare, and to take care of children. This may be due to the limited number of viewers.
There are concerns that a parent-child relationship that is
accompanied by negative feelings toward child-rearing will worsen the parent-child relationship. The University of Tokyo Cedep Benesse Educational Research Institute’s “Survey on the Life and Development of Infants” (2019) reveals that “people who have a broader community they can rely on have a higher sense of affirmation of child-rearing.” In addition, Hamaya and Nakahara (2017) stated, “It is possible to shift from ‘one-ope childcare,’ in which mothers take care of themselves alone, to ‘team childcare,’ in which fathers and mothers, as well as grandparents, relatives, and nursery schools receive various support. necessary” (p.76). Based on these research findings, social support such as kindergartens and governments is indispensable now that children are isolated due to the corona crisis. “Team childcare” allows mothers to secure time for themselves. In addition, being able to face child-rearing with peace of mind will lead to the happiness and fulfillment of the family. In the future, it will be necessary to promote “team childcare” in society as a whole, instead of childrearing centered on the nuclear family. Based on the results of this survey, the Benesse Educational Research and Development Institute will conduct research that contributes to the realization of a better child-rearing environment and disseminate information to society.
[Reference materials]
*The University of Tokyo Cedep/Benesse Educational Research and Development Institute “Survey on the Life and Development of Infants” (2019)
https://berd.benesse.jp/feature/focus/22-babysympo2019teamikuji/activity01/page_4.html *Yuko Hamaya and Atsushi Nakahara (2017) “Childcare is useful for work – from ‘one-op childcare’ to ‘team childcare’”, Kobunsha Shinsho. Concerning the results of the “6th Infant Life Questionnaire” Takashi Muto (Professor Emeritus, Shiraume Gakuen University) This survey was conducted in March 2022 for guardians (mothers) with infants in the Tokyo metropolitan area. At that time, the
self-restraint due to the corona virus continued, and kindergartens and nursery schools also closed classes and refrained from attending kindergarten. Perhaps the characteristics of that period are reflected in the results of this time, but at the same time, there is also an aspect of the emergence of trends of the times. The rapid increase in nursery school enrollment rates and the fact that more people are becoming more educated must also be contributing factors.
Negative feelings toward child-rearing by mothers are increasing, and positive feelings are decreasing. Especially when there are children who are not yet in kindergarten (1 year and 6 months to 3 years and 11 months). In addition, the number of grandparents and friends who can help has decreased significantly, and fathers are the main ones. This means that we are in a situation where we are raising children as nuclear families, and that we are increasingly relying on
kindergartens in various ways. Looking at other items, the
expectations for the garden are increasing. They entrusted their children to kindergartens, relied on information from kindergartens (as well as information from the Internet), and began to emphasize early childhood education at kindergartens. Regardless of employment type or full-time housewife, it is becoming mainstream to balance child-rearing and one’s own way of life. I wonder if it was.
[Table 2: https://prtimes.jp/data/corp/120/table/1107_1_31a49121b2edc968fbda51c882e9dac4.jpg ]
You can also download this release material and detailed data from the website of the Benesse Educational Research & Development Institute. https://berd.benesse.jp/jisedai/research/detail1.php?id=5803 Details about this release:
https://prtimes.jp/main/html/rd/p/000001107.000000120.html

MAIL:cr@prtimes.co.jp

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